Monthly Archives: January 2019

Stem Cells Dentistry in India

Stem cells obtained from various adult body sources, are becoming the next generation “Mainstream Medicine.”

autism treatment

The field of regenerative medicine and stem cells science has been marked as an era of ‘great scientific interest and therapeutic opportunities’. Stem cells biology has been evolved with commendable technological advancements with an aim to replace or regenerate damaged cells of injured tissues. From a vast pool of stem cells types, isolated from different sources, neural crest derived stem cells enclosed in an ideal niche of pulp chamber have been acknowledged to be the most abundant, highly proliferative with multipotent differentiation ability and non-invasive, ethically exempted source; which has been ignored for quite a long. Advancells has recently launched a very unique approach of accessing these most technology to obtain right stem cells without any invasive procedure and offer them in a right quantity; for the effective clinical outcome.

Treatment Indications

Dental Pulp, a soft tissue inside a wisdom tooth and/or baby’s milk tooth has been confirmed to be the reservoir of mesenchymal stem cells, with a distinguished ability to form multiple tissue specific cells in the body; when specifically infused, and allowed to grow on resorbable, biocompatible and inert substitute, serving as a temporary extracellular matrix, which can mimic as a coherent, retractable, mechanically resistant tissue, suitable for nesting these stem cells.

Thus, the indian company Advancells has pitched into this breakthrough by infusing Dental Pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells into an artificially created niche of biodegradable scaffold to enhance natural reconstruction of tissue, through cellular grafting, for below mentioned indications.

Source: https://www.advancells.com/

Teeth Alive After Root Canals

While root canals often are necessary for treating infections, they result in a dead tooth with no living dental pulp. Now, researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) have developed a peptide hydrogel that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels and dental pulp within a tooth after the procedure.

What you end up with after a root canal is a dead tooth,” said Vivek Kumar, PhD, assistant professor of biomedical and chemical engineering and principal investigator of the project. “It’s no longer responsive. There are no nerve endings or vascular supply. So, the tooth is very susceptible to subsequent infection and, ultimately, falling out.”

During root canals, clinicians remove infected dental pulp and replace it with gutta percha before capping the tooth with a crown. The researchers, then, wanted to develop a biomaterial that could be injected in place of gutta percha to stimulate angiogenesis, or new blood vessel growth, and dentinogenesis, or proliferation of dental pulp stem cells.

Kumar drew on his previous experience developing a hydrogel that stimulates angiogenesis when injected under the skin of rats and mice. The hydrogel, which is liquid during injection, contains peptides that self-assemble into a gel at the injection site.

The peptides contain a snippet of a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulates the growth of new blood vessels. Kumar, then a postdoctoral researcher at Rice University, and his colleagues showed that the self-assembling peptide hydrogel stimulated angiogenesis and persisted under the rodents’ skin for as long as three months.

We asked the question, if we can stimulate angiogenesis in a limb, can we stimulate angiogenesis in other regions that have low blood flow?” Kumar said. “One of the regions we were really interested in was an organ in and of itself, the tooth.

Source: http://www.dentistrytoday.com/

Periodontal Bacteria May Trigger Alzheimer’s

Long-term exposure to periodontal disease bacteria causes inflammation and degeneration of brain neurons in mice that is similar to the effects of Alzheimer’s disease in humans, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).

The findings, which are published in PLOS ONE, suggest that periodontal disease, a common but preventable gum infection, may be an initiator of Alzheimer’s, which currently has no treatment or cure.

Other studies have demonstrated a close association between periodontitis and cognitive impairment, but this is the first study to show that exposure to the periodontal bacteria results in the formation of senile plaques that accelerate the development of neuropathology found in Alzheimer’s patients,” said Dr. Keiko Watanabe, professor of periodontics at the UIC College of Dentistry and corresponding author on the study.

This was a big surprise,” Watanabe said. “We did not expect that the periodontal pathogen would have this much influence on the brain, or that the effects would so thoroughly resemble Alzheimer’s disease.

To study the impact of the bacteria on brain health, the Watanabe and her colleagues — including Dr. Vladimir Ilievski, UIC research assistant professor and co-author on the paper — established chronic periodontitis, which is characterized by soft tissue damage and bone loss in the oral cavity, in 10 wild-type mice. Another 10 mice served as the control group. After 22 weeks of repeated oral application of the bacteria to the study group, the researchers studied the brain tissue of the mice and compared brain health.

The researchers found that the mice chronically exposed to the bacteria had significantly higher amounts of accumulated amyloid beta — a senile plaque found in the brain tissue of Alzheimer’s patients. The study group also had more brain inflammation and fewer intact neurons due to degeneration.

Source: https://today.uic.edu/

How To Regenerates Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

When a tooth is damaged, either by severe decay or trauma, the living tissues that comprise the sensitive inner dental pulp become exposed and vulnerable to harmful bacteria. Once infection takes hold, few treatment options—primarily root canals or tooth extraction—are available to alleviate the painful symptoms.

Researchers at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) now show that using a collagen-based biomaterial to deliver stem cells inside damaged teeth can regenerate dental pulp-like tissues in animal model experiments. The study, published online in the Journal of Dental Research , supports the potential of this approach as part of a strategy for restoring natural tooth functionality.

Delivering stem cells into damaged teeth may someday help restore natural tooth function. An x-ray of deep dental decay (green arrow) and infection (blue arrows)

Endodontic treatment, such as a root canal, essentially kills a once living tooth. It dries out over time, becomes brittle and can crack, and eventually might have to be replaced with a prosthesis,” said senior study authorPamela Yelick, PhD, professor at TUSDM and director of its Division of Craniofacial and Molecular Genetics. “Our findings validate the potential of an alternative approach to endodontic treatment, with the goal of regenerating a damaged tooth so that it remains living and functions like any other normal tooth.”

Yelick and her colleagues, including lead study author Arwa Khayat, former graduate student in dental research at TUSDM, examined the safety and efficacy of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)—a low-cost hydrogel derived from naturally occurring collagen—as a scaffold to support the growth of new dental pulp tissue. Using GelMA, the team encapsulated a mix of human dental pulp stem cells—obtained from extracted wisdom teeth—and endothelial cells, which accelerate cell growth. This mix was delivered into isolated, previously damaged human tooth roots, which were extracted from patients as part of unrelated clinical treatment and sterilized of remaining living tissue. The roots were then implanted and allowed to grow in a rodent animal model for up to eight weeks.

Source: https://now.tufts.edu/

Stem cell-based biological tooth repair and regeneration

Teeth exhibit limited repair in response to damage, and dental pulp stem cells probably provide a source of cells to replace those damaged and to facilitate repair. Stem cells in other parts of the tooth, such as the periodontal ligament and growing roots, play more dynamic roles in tooth function and development. Dental stem cells can be obtained with ease, making them an attractive source of autologous stem cells for use in restoring vital pulp tissue removed because of infection, in regeneration of periodontal ligament lost in periodontal disease, and for generation of complete or partial tooth structures to form biological implants. As dental stem cells share properties with mesenchymal stem cells, there is also considerable interest in their wider potential to treat disorders involving mesenchymal (or indeed non-mesenchymal) cell derivatives, such as in Parkinson’s disease.

Teeth are complex organs containing two separate specialized hard tissues, dentine and enamel, which form an integrated attachment complex with bone via a specialized (periodontal) ligament. Embryologically, teeth are ectodermal organs that form from sequential reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial cells (ectoderm) and cranial neural crest derived mesenchymal cells. The epithelial cells give rise to enamel forming ameloblasts, and the mesenchymal cells form all other differentiated cells (e.g., dentine forming odontoblasts, pulp, periodontal ligament) (Box 1). Teeth continue developing postnatally; the outer covering of enamel gradually becomes harder, and root formation, which is essential for tooth function, only starts to occur as part of tooth eruption in children.

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Regrowing dental tissue with stem cells from baby teeth

Sometimes kids trip and fall, and their teeth take the hit. Nearly half of children suffer some injury to a tooth during childhood. When that trauma affects an immature permanent tooth, it can hinder blood supply and root development, resulting in what is essentially a “dead” tooth.

Until now, the standard of care has entailed a procedure called apexification that encourages further root development, but it does not replace the lost tissue from the injury and, even in a best-case scenario, causes root development to proceed abnormally.

New results of a clinical trial, jointly led by Songtao Shi of the  and Yan Jin, Kun Xuan, and Bei Li of the Fourth Military Medicine University in Xi’an, China, suggest that there is a more promising path for children with these types of injuries: using stem cells extracted from the patient’s baby teeth. The work was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

This treatment gives patients sensation back in their teeth. If you give them a warm or cold stimulation, they can feel it; they have living teeth again,” says Shi, professor and chair in the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Penn’s School of Dental Medicine. “So far we have follow-up data for two, two and a half, even three years, and have shown it’s a safe and effective therapy.”

 

Source: https://penntoday.upenn.edu/

How To Treat Oral Plaque Without Drugs

When the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced, the bad bacteria form a biofilm (aka plaque), which can cause cavities, and if left untreated over time, can lead to cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases like diabetes and bacterial pneumonia.

A team of researchers from the University of Illinois has recently devised a practical nanotechnology-based method for detecting and treating the harmful bacteria that cause plaque and lead to tooth decay and other detrimental conditions.

Oral plaque is invisible to the eye so dentists currently visualize it with disclosing agents, which they administer to patients in the form of a dissolvable tablet or brush-on swab. While useful in helping patients see the extent of their plaque, these methods are unable to identify the difference between good and bad bacteria.

In this illustration, nanoparticles attach to or are taken up by the bacteria cells. Pan and his students are the first group to demonstrate that early detection of dental plaque in the clinic is possible using the regular intraoral X-ray machine which can seek out harmful bacteria populations.

Presently in the clinic, detection of dental plaque is highly subjective and only depends on the dentist’s visual evaluation,” said Bioengineering Associate Professor Dipanjan Pan, head of the research team. “We have demonstrated for the first time that early detection of dental plaque in the clinic is possible using the regular intraoral X-ray machine which can seek out harmful bacteria populations.

In order to accomplish this, Fatemeh Ostadhossein, a Bioengineering graduate student in Pan’s group, developed a plaque detection probe that works in conjunction with common X-ray technology and which is capable of finding specific harmful bacteria known as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in a complex biofilm network. Additionally, they also demonstrated that by tweaking the chemical composition of the probe, it can be used to target and destroy the S. mutans bacteria.

The probe is comprised of nanoparticles made of hafnium oxide (HfO2), a non-toxic metal that is currently under clinical trial for internal use in humans. In their study, the team demonstrated the efficacy of the probe to identify biochemical markers present at the surface of the bacterial biofilm and simultaneously destroy S. mutans. They conducted their study on Sprague Dawley rats.

In practice, Pan envisions a dentist applying the probe on the patient’s teeth and using the X-ray machine to accurately visualize the extent of the biofilm plaque. If the plaque is deemed severe, then the dentist would follow up with the administering of the therapeutic HfO2 nanoparticles in the form of a dental paste.

In their study, the team compared the therapeutic ability of their nanoparticles with Chlorhexidine, a chemical currently used by dentists to eradicate biofilm. “Our HfO2nanoparticles are far more efficient at killing the bacteria and reducing the biofilm burden both in cell cultures of bacteria and in [infected] rats,” said Ostadhossein, noting that their new technology is also much safer than conventional treatment.

Source: https://bioengineering.illinois.edu/

Orthodontic Surgery Without Incision

Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have developed a nanotechnology that replaces the surgical scalpel with an “enzymatic blade.” In an article published recently in ACS Nano, the researchers describe the application of this technology in a surgical procedure in the oral cavity. The application spares the pain associated with orthodontic surgeries and significantly reduces tissue recovery time.

The study was led by Dr. Assaf Zinger, within the framework of his doctoral research, mentored by Assistant Professor Avi Schroeder, the director of theLaboratory of Targeted Drug Delivery and Personalized Medicine at the Wolfson Faculty of Chemical Engineering. The novel technology is based on rational use of enzymesbiological molecules the body uses to repair itself, as well as on use of nanoparticles for achieving a targeted therapeutic profile.

In the United States alone, approximately five million people undergo orthodontic treatment each year. To speed up treatment, which typically lasts about two years, many undergo invasive surgery, in which collagen fibers that connect the tooth to the underlying bone tissue are cut.

The technology developed at the Technion softens the collagen fibers via the targeted release of collagenase – an enzyme that specifically breaks down collagen. Using techniques developed in Schroeder’s lab, thecollagenase is packaged into liposomesnanometric vesicles. As long as the collagenase particles are packaged in the liposome, they are inactive. But with this special nanotechnology, an ointment is applied on the target site, so that the enzyme begins to gradually leak from the liposome andsoften the collagen fibers. The researchers performed a series of tests to determine the collagenase concentration optimal for the procedure and to accelerate tissue repair thereafter.

Source: http://t3news.trdf.co.il/

Nanoparticles Destroy Dental Plaque, Prevent Tooth Decay

Combine a diet high in sugar with poor oral hygiene habits and dental cavities, or caries, will likely result. The sugar triggers the formation of anacidic biofilm, known as plaque, on the teeth, eroding the surface. Early childhood caries is a severe form of tooth decay that affects one in every four children in the United States and hundreds of millions more globally. It’s a particularly severe problem in underprivileged populations.

Treatment with a nanoparticle and hydrogen peroxide (right panel) left little in the way of bacteria (in blue) or the sticky biofilm matrix (in red), making the combination a potent force against dental plaque

In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers led by Hyun (Michel) Koo of the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine in collaboration with David Cormode of Penn’s Perelman School of Medicine andSchool of Engineering and Applied Science used FDA-approved nanoparticles to effectively disrupt biofilms and prevent tooth decay in both an experimental human-plaque-like biofilm and in an animal model thatmimics early-childhood caries. The nanoparticles break apart dental plaque through a unique pH-activated antibiofilm mechanism.

It displays an intriguing enzyme-like property whereby the catalytic activity is dramatically enhanced at acidic pH but is ‘switched off’ at neutral pH conditions,” says Koo, professor in Penn Dental Medicine’s Department of Orthodontics. “The nanoparticles act as a peroxidase, activating hydrogen peroxide, a commonly used antiseptic, to generate free radicals that potently dismantle and kill biofilms in pathological acidic conditions but not at physiological pH, thus providing a targeted effect.”

Because the caries-causing plaque is highly acidic, the new therapy is able to precisely target areas of the teeth harboring pathogenic biofilmswithout harming the surrounding oral tissues or microbiota. The particulariron-containing nanoparticle used in the experiments, ferumoxytol, is already FDA-approved to treat iron-deficiency, a promising indication that a topical application of the same nanoparticle, used at several-hundred-fold lower concentration, would also be safe for human use.

Source: https://penntoday.upenn.edu/

 

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